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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

encourage

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vt. 转移,分心
Businesses are already responding: Job openings in November hit the second highest level in 14 years. In another telltale sign, people are quitting jobs at the fastest rate in five years. Research shows that people who quit one job for another typically do so because they are offered higher pay.
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"We felt very helpless that people thought that the fog and haze were caused by poor-quality oil produced by us." FU CHENGYU, member of the CPPCC National Committee and chairman of Sinopec
对于上周有媒体称三星和黑莓正在进行收购洽淡的报道,两家公司都迅速予以否认。但全球最大的智能手机厂商为何愿意付出传闻中的75亿美元高价,来收购一家盛年不再的加拿大技术公司呢?答案是:因为后者持有丰富的知识产权——尤其是在前景光明的安全创新领域。
当伊利诺伊大学的研究员着手建立一种靠嗅觉来鉴别化学物质的装置时,他们并不满足于提高人类鼻子的灵敏度。相反,他们发展出一种假鼻子,依靠对细菌的气味来鉴别和诊断某些疾病。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

2013中国家居产业百强研究成果发布

butterfly
WHAT: A riverfront contemporary with three bedrooms and three and a half bathrooms
5. 格罗斯警告:“庞氏骗局!临界点!信贷超新星!”

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

n. 诱惑,引诱
传统佳节之际,献上殷殷祝福,祝新年万事如意!
Arriving at the stage, he said: "What an incredible honour, that meant a lot. Two years ago we found ourselves submerged deep in nature with all its complications and all the beauty that it gave us cinematically.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 传统佳节之际,献上殷殷祝福,祝新年万事如意!
  • 百名经济学家预测中国经济 逾半力挺房价将走稳
  • 不过,这一涨幅显著低于此前一个月8.2%的环比涨幅。
  • 佛山照明证券虚假陈述案引关注 遇第二波“索赔潮”
  • “中国制造2025”战略下的LED照明产业如何发展?
  • ['gl?ub?l]
    但是,当今年12月WTO成员国聚集在布宜诺斯艾利斯召开两年一度的部长级会议时,我们将一尝世界新秩序的味道。一如既往的是,目前尚不清楚WTO此次能否产生一些实质性内容。但真正的考验在于,WTO有史以来第一次不由美国牵头讨论。中国或欧盟会取而代之吗?印度会像过去一样一心阻挠任何协议吗?

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 千亿“大基金”再出手 助推LED等半导体行业发展, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

西宁跻身营商环境上升最快榜单前十

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

本周国常会:确定进一步支持返乡下乡创业的措施

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 我认为这篇文章是上篇文章“成为一个足球寡妇”的完美续篇,在这篇文章里面我分享了八大规则,其中我觉得第六条最重要。
    However, in season two Friends took a big leap toward equality by featuring a gay wedding when Carol married her girlfriend Susan. Behind the scenes, executive producer Marta Kauffman said, "NBC expected thousands and thousands of phone calls and hate mail." However, after the episode aired, they received only four antagonistic letters. As it turns out, people just didn't care that much.
  • The excitement was triggered by a Reuters story that cited documents about the potential transaction as the source of its information. Samsung actually has made at least one play for BlackBerry BBRY -19.77% before, in 2012. As to this latest rumor, the alleged takeover target was the first to refute that a deal is in the works.
    加强现代农业建设。
    [?'p?uzd]
    其中,上海交易所IPO共计26宗,而深圳中小企业板IPO共计15宗,创业板IPO共计20宗。
    华盛顿:到十月份底,印度减持美国政府债券到775亿美元,尽管作为世界上最大经济体的美国的经济在稳步的上升。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 四川凉山州家居市场质量环保抽检多为合格
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 全面清理整治“大棚房”问题 坚决遏制农地非农化乱象

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

According to a report by Beijing Statistics Bureau, retail sales of consumer goods in the Chinese capital surpassed 1 trillion yuan ($152 billion) in 2015, up 7.3 percent year on year.
愿你度过最美好的新年!
一份产业报告显示,随着国内手机制造商加快创新,国产品牌手机仍占据国内手机出货量的主要份额。
Its GDP increased 7.5 percent compared to last year, according to a report by 21st Century Business Herald.
o Tesla is a car for rich people. With an average price of $85,000, it is safe to say that few Tesla owners are buying one to save money on fuel, and the car’s range limitations mean that a Tesla is never the only car in an owner’s garage. At some point, these same people will stop viewing Tesla as the flavor of the month, its order backlog will shrink, and Tesla will have to scrap for sales like other manufacturers.
During your early years wasthere anything that inspired or sparked your imagination to start writing theway that you have done so far?
全球缓慢的经济增长并不会很大程度的拖累美国。美国的出口额虽然可能持平甚至下降,但是这将会被由于油价下降的石油进口额抵消,所以贸易赤字并不会给美国经济造成更进一步的影响。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 迷你剧集/电影类最佳女演员:萨拉?保罗森(Sarah Paulson),《美国罪案故事:公诉辛普森》(The People v. O. J. Simpson: American Crime Story)
  • 宜华木业股票跌停 刘绍喜陷入传言漩涡
  • 科学圈外的人士对论文撤稿的反应不一。
    4. 2012年搞笑诺贝尔奖之神经科学奖
  • 红木家具“水”很深 一不小心就可能“踩空”
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 以下是第68届年度黄金时段艾美奖的主要获奖者名单,请登陆emmys.com浏览获奖名单完整版。
    It was the best of times, it was the worst of times…
  • 单词criminal 联想记忆:
    CareerCast.com是Adicio Inc.旗下的求职网站。该网站基于体能要求、工作环境、收入、工作压力和职业前景这五项因素,对200种职业进行了先后排名。在确定排名次序时,网站采用的是美国劳工统计局(Bureau of Labor Statistics)等政府部门的数据。与前些年一样,之所以选择这200个职业,是因为考虑到它们在当前劳动力市场的需求程度以及是否能获得相关可靠数据。
  • 沃克排名第六,得益于他演艺生涯中最卖座的影片《速度与激情6》。在因车祸悲剧丧生之前,他已经完成了《速度与激情7》的大部分拍摄工作。据称环球影业(Universal)不会重新拍摄该片,而会对后续拍摄作出相应调整。
    The Asia-Pacific is the common home of all countries in the region. China does not want to see any party in the Asia-Pacific region feel compelled to choose sides under the influence of a Cold-War mentality.
  • 除了这些理论之外,还有传统经济学家用来误导美国的坏的统计数据:最恶劣的是GDP,它在衡量美国长期增长的时候是一个狭窄的、误导人的指标。其次,我们对短期数据(每日收盘情况、季度业绩、年度回报等)的执迷正在阻碍美国的长远增长。
    British golden girl, Lily Donaldson - who has been a cover girl for the likes of Vogue - showcased her own sultry take on summer style, wearing a white semi-sheer, strapless dress to the event. The 30-year-old model looked simply sensational in the nearly transparent number.
    What deserves to be mentioned the most is, Uber and Tesla Motors Inc did not make it to the list. "Both Uber and Tesla do innovate, but not at a sufficient level to feature in the Top 100 list of innovative organizations around the globe as measured by patent metrics of volume, success, globalization and impact. They neither have sufficiently large portfolios to qualify for inclusion with less than 100 granted inventions during 2010-2014," Stembridge said.
  • 作为过去二十五年来的常胜将军、福特的F系列皮卡一直成功地抵挡住了雪佛兰重新设计的西尔维拉多(Silverado)的挑战,盘踞着美国最畅销皮卡的宝座。而全是日本品牌角逐的最畅销汽车决赛,丰田(Toyota)凯美瑞(Camry)再次成功击败本田(Honda)雅阁(Accord),摘得冠军头衔。
    Song “Embrace Happiness”(Kelly Chen)
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 交叉检查促楼市平稳向好发展 多家知名房企被通报 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

一季度北京个人房贷增加93亿元

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

LED照明高增长模式启动 政府扶持政策与订单频出

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

装配式建筑“抱团”发展 长沙力争三年形成千亿级产业集群

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

全球头号房地产投资公司进军中国 6个月内将推产品

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 陈宇说:“一些互联网行业的天才创造了很多奇迹,但这并不代表一切。每个行业都有各自的规则。在你在这一行业开始之前,你必须要知道如何生产产品,如何销售,如何经营一家公司。我们不能期待一个刚刚毕业的大学生一开始就知道这些经验。”
  • Chile were one of the most exciting teams at the 2010 World Cup and recentky gave England the run around at Wembley, whilst if Colombia can get Radamel Falcao fit then they could cause an upset or two. So of all the South American teams, only Ecuador look like they might struggle to get out of the group stages, with all the others more than capable of reaching the latter stages.
  • 北京:违规转租转借公租房五年内不能再申请

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 一份产业报告显示,随着国内手机制造商加快创新,国产品牌手机仍占据国内手机出货量的主要份额。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 不管使用什么样的固有动力方式,所有这些引擎都利用最新的发动机技术,从而使性能和燃料经济最大化,其范围包括从福特嘉年华(Fiesta)的小型、高效1.0升涡轮增压三缸发动机到雪佛兰科尔维特Stingray已经被证明无可替代的巨大6.2升V8引擎。我们在本文的幻灯片里列出了《沃兹汽车》十大最佳引擎。
    Goldman Sachs will pay out big bonuses, be publicly vilified for a month and then go quietly back to printing profits.
    vt. 使成为可取,
  • 3.The Andrea Yates Trial Inspired Desperate Housewives

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 总部位于芝加哥的竞争对手科尔尼(AT Kearney)也在为领导层变动做准备,计划于2018年第一季度投票决定接替约翰奥利格(Johan Aurik)的人选。管理合伙人最多担任两个任期,而奥利格已经期满。预计他的继任者将专注于让科尔尼做大,摆脱中等规模参与者之列。
  • 德豪雷士启动中国首个O2O照明和智能家居电商平台
  • As early as 2008, wearable technology—which can range in anything from measuring your heart rate to curating music based on your mood—has been touted as the next big moment in consumer electronics.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 全球油漆涂料行业半年报出炉:“不平衡”是今年主旋律
  • Household substance abuse
  • 租客呼吁提供长租合同 专家建议规范差价限定高涨幅
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

商品房待售面积7亿平米攀新高 各地开药方去库存

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 南京河西“破限”盘今摇号选房 中签率仅3.1%
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 广东建筑防水材料产能严重过剩
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

People have been predicting consolidation in this very fragmented sector for years and there have indeed been big mergers recently. But there is little doubt that price pressures on City law firms are intensifying.

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

infinite
A Larger Profile
单词polish 联想记忆:
赢家:猛龙
《中国文化遗迹》杂志是一本新创立的期刊,专门把发表在《文物》杂志上的原创文章翻译成英文。其创刊号上就发表了这座1700年墓地的发现。
1. Choosing a job based on compensation alone
Beck “Say Goodbye” (Capitol)
据新华社报道,全国青少年校园足球办公室近日表示,2016年中国已经拥有13381所“足球专业学校”,而69个区县正在学校里试点足球项目。
妮诗原来就读于奥顿肖杨树街小学,现在就读于威辛顿女子学校,今年九月会进入奥尔特林厄姆女子语法学校。她与父母尼朗加和施若咪一起生活, 2001年,一家三口从斯里兰卡搬到了曼彻斯特。44岁的父亲尼朗加称赞妮诗在杨树街小学的启蒙老师们功不可没。他说:“我们很早就知道她有天赋,她很小就开始阅读和写字,而且非常擅长数学计算。我们让她做一些有挑战又有趣味的事。作为父母,你不想让孩子的天赋荒废掉,但是在他们的童年时期又需要平衡。她只是一个普通的10岁小孩,真的就像任何其他的10岁小孩。她喜欢阅读、骑车、散步,我们都为她感到骄傲。”
东道主的对手阿根廷队在此次世界杯中也有很大的机会。一支以梅西为主的队伍都会在最后大放异彩,但是当你在队伍中增添类似塞尔吉奥·阿奎罗(Sergio Aguero)、冈萨罗·伊瓜因(Gonzalo Higuan)和埃泽奎尔·拉维奇(Ezequiel Lavezzi)这样的队员的话,那么它将是这届世界杯上最具有进攻打法的球队了。同理,乌拉圭的进攻三人组——路易斯·苏亚雷斯(Luis Suarez)、埃丁森·卡瓦尼(Edinson Cavani)以及迪亚戈·弗兰(Diegol Forlan)同样拥有同等的实力,能对世界上任何一支球队比赛时进球,不过,他们所在队伍中其他人的实力是否足够强还让人存疑。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

不做风口的“猪”:卫浴业驰骋千里还须做到自我坚守

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 出口复苏可能在一定程度上化解人们对于新兴市场国家的悲观看法。在本世纪初的那些年,许多新兴市场国家曾把出口强劲增长作为经济快速发展的跳板,后来出口由盛转衰了。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • lasting
  • 儿童家具不合格率居高不下 消费者对国标理解不够
  • 《一个开车从来不回头看的沙特女子》(A Saudi Woman Who Got Behind the Wheel and Never Looked Back)
  • 浅析:践行“大家居生态圈”的两种模式
  • 中国科学技术协会书记处书记王春法对撤稿事件表示深切关注,事件发生几天前,他刚在北京与施普林格自然集团大中华地区总裁安诺杰会面沟通。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 京房客平均11个月换一次房 最怕听说要卖房
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • The standout is "Him," a tear-jerker about queer love and cultural intolerance that, in its understated way, is an LGBTQ civil rights anthem.
  • vi. 流通,循环,传播

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

警方打掉“套路贷”敲诈勒索团伙

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